Briefing paper on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations between the EU and the US

May 1st 2014

In 2013 the ANU Centre for EUropean Studies held a public roundtable on the negotionation between the European Union and the United States for a Transatlantic Trade and Partnership Agreement.

A summary of the discussion papers has now been published as a ANUCES briefing paper, titled "The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: Implications for Australia and the Asia-Pacific". Contributers are Maria Garcia, John Ravenhill, Jiro Okomoto, John Leslie and Annmarie Elijah, Don Kenyon and Pierre van der Eng.

For more information and to download the briefing paper, please click here.

Australia and the European Union: Beyond the Framework Treaty

Chief investigators Donald Kenyon and Adjunct Fellow Pierre van der Eng have written on the trade relationship between Australia and the European Union and their current negotiation of a ‘Framework Treaty’.

The article "Australia and the European Union: Beyond the Framework Treaty" is now available on the Australian Institute of International Affairs' website.

The piece is an edited abstract of an article by the same authors published in the latest edition of the Australian Journal of International Affairs: "Defining the relationship between Australia and the European Union: is the framework treaty enough?"

Australia urged to encourage the EU to start comprehensive FTA discussions

June 12th 2013

Mr Alastair Walton, President of the European-Australian Business Council, one of the key partner organisations supporting the project discussed the strong potential for a comprehensive EU-Australia Free Trade Agreement in a public lecture at the ANU Centre for European Studies on 15 May 2013. He highlighted the importance of closer EU-Australia trade and investment relations in relation to the ongoing Transatlantic Free Trade Agreement Negotiations. In his assessment, Mr Walton referred to the research of Don Kenyon and Pierre van der Eng, both Chief Investigators in the project. Several of the issues that may have to be resolved in FTA negotiations were previously raised in a 2011 special issue of the Australian Journal of International Affairs, edited by Don Kenyon and Karen Hussey, including mutual recognition solutions to regulatory divergencies.

To substantiate his argument that it is now essential for the Australian Government to develop a new strategic framework with Europe, Mr Walton outlined the following key instruments:

  • Commissioning a White Paper on European soft power and how Australia can better position itself to influence this, both in support of our regional security and to attract further European investment;
  • Reviewing and enhancing the way Australian government resources are currently deployed in Europe;
  • Developing a program of official visits to engage Europe’s investment community;
  • Establishing an Australia-European Leadership dialogue;
  • Commencing negotiations for a comprehensive Free Trade Agreement.

To view full transcript of the lecture, please follow the link: ANU Lecture 2015 May 2013.pdf

ABC Radio National will broadcast the event in its “Big Ideas” program.

What is special about the EU’s interest in FTAs in Asia?

December 22nd 2012

Don Kenyon and Pierre van der Eng have published a commentary on EU interest in FTAs in Asia. The article reviews elements of EU’s external FTAs that link international trade and investment with non-economic issues. The case of South Korea is the first example where trade liberalisation is used as an instrument to enforce wider foreign-policy objectives. Furthermore, a similar scenario is likely to take place in EU FTA negotiations with Canada, Singapore and Japan. The outcome of the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, in relation to the provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon, remains to be seen. This is closely watched by other countries in line to negotiate treaty-level agreements: Singapore, Japan and Australia.

Full article is available at:

Mutual Recognition and the Linking of EU-Australia Emission Trading Systems

September 19th 2012

The Australian Minister for Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, the Hon Greg Combet MP, and the European Commissioner for Climate Action, Ms Connie Hedegaard put a goal to implement mutual recognition of carbon units between the two regions by 1 July 2018. This will allow Australian entities to purchase international and EU allowances that can be used to meet domestic liabilities.

Global interreliance on the issues of climate change requires a high degree of cross-regional cooperation. This subject is not dissimilar for international services trade and other aspects of business relations that require a unified policy response. Chief investigators of the EUTrade project together with the ANU Centre for European Studies raised the potential of mutual recognition at the Services Trade Seminar at Goethe-Institut Brussel held earlier this year. Comparisons were drawn in relation to the Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Agreement (ANZCERTA) that can be used as a framework for the EU-Australia Treaty-Level Agreement currently in negotiation. Similarly, this argument is in line with the Special Issue of the Australian Journal of International Affairs (AJIA) published in September 2011. It is yet too early to assess the effectiveness and instruments of the EU-Australia treaty level agreement.

The difficulty of achieving international/regional harmonisation is clear, where the focus on mutual recognition approach and vision will facilitate increasing cooperation at all levels.


Further information:

Linking of the European Emissions Trading System and the Australian Emissions Trading System Document:

Services Trade Seminar:
#Services Trade Seminar – a great success

Special Issue of the Australian Journal of International Affairs (AJIA), September 2011:

Australia and Europe in Conversation and a Treaty-Level Agreement

July 26th 2012

Yesterday, the ANU Centre for European Studies hosted Australia in Europe Conversation [no.6]. The debate was joined by H.E. Mr Noel White, Ambassador for Ireland to Australia and New Zealand, H.E. Mr Rui Quartin-Santos, Ambassador for Portugal to Australia and New Zealand, and Mr Peter Doyle, Assistant Secretary, EU & Western Europe Branch, DFAT.

The discussions addressed the main reasons and benefits of EU membership for Ireland and Portugal. Issues of Eurozone crisis were also addressed in light of the greater internal integration, reassuring a strong political will to further development. H.E. Mr Noel White noted that the EU is not defined by the Eurozone crisis. Further, the cooperation between Australia and Ireland was discussed, touching upon the subjects of bilateral business relations and skilled employment/migration.

Importantly, it was noted that the fourth round of negotiations on a treaty-level agreement between the EU and Australia will take place during July 26-27. Current aim is to conclude the negotiations by the end of 2012. It was mentioned that the agreement will elaborate on cooperation in bilateral business relations, climate change, education cooperation and aid delivery.

Audio segment will be available through the ABC Big Ideas series 'Australia and Europe in conversation, part six'.


Raise in trade protectionism across the G20 countries

June 7th 2012

On the basis of the report released by the European Commission, 123 new trade restrictions were introduced over the last eight months, which is a rise of over 25%. Since the break-out of the crisis new trade-restrictive measures were introduced by G20 members. The ninth report on potentially trade-restrictive measures concludes that the compliance with the removal of existing barriers is insufficient. Similarly, the rate of introduction of new restrictive measures has increased. Restrictions in government procurement as well as service and investment area continue to be the main concern.

It should be noted that Argentina, Indonesia and Russia each contribute to over 15% of the new restrictive measures introduced. The new protective measures introduced by Australia remain minimal.

The full text of the Ninth Report on Potentially Trade Restrictive Measures can be accessed by the following link:


"Promoting Domestic Reforms through Regionalism" working paper by Philippa Dee and Anne McNaughton

March 2nd 2012

Anne McNaughton, one of the chief investigators in the ARC Linkage Project, has recently published an ADB Institute working paper with Philippa Dee.

The paper is titled “Promoting Domestic Reforms through Regionalism”

There is a strong presumption among economists that domestic reforms are promoted by regionalism. Yet strong empirical evidence for this proposition is lacking. This paper examines both the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence on this issue, drawing on the relevant economic, political, and legal literature. The authors argue that in general, the case for reciprocity in domestic reforms is weak. In the one case where a regional agreement appears to have promoted domestic reform—the European Union (EU)—the enforcement mechanisms used by the European Court of Justice played a significant role. But those mechanisms are not unique. Instead, the authors argue that the EU’s success was because domestic constituents were empowered to take action against uncompetitive regulation. Thus the EU promoted economic reform in sensitive, behind-the-border areas because it overcame the problem of loss of sovereignty by internalizing the political battle to domestic interests, and yet still provided a non-political frame of reference for the debate.

Full version of the article:


Services Trade Seminar – a great success

February 16th 2012

Regulatory Divergences as Barriers to Services Trade Seminar, hosted by the Centre for International Political Economy in Brussels, was a great success. The ARC Linkage team successfully launched the special issue of the Australian Journal of International Affairs. The event was attended by over 80 participants from various business and public sector fields.

The presentations were followed by a brief discussion of some of the issues faced by the businesses and their views on future policy development. Yet, it is clear that the effect on specific business and industry sectors remains understudied. This highlights the potential for further investigation of firm-level perspectives in relation to trade and investment activity between the two regions.


Preparatory discussions on a Free Trade Agreement between the EU and Japan

July 27 2011

On 28 May 2011, EU - Japan summit was held in Brussels to launch the process towards a Free Trade Agreement. Both sides agreed that greater cooperation is meaningful and important to lower the barriers to trade between the two regions. It was agreed that both sides have a significant potential which remains untapped for most businesses.

A full press release is available at:

Special Issue of the Australian Journal of International Affairs (AJIA), September 2011

May 4th 2011

Tackling ‘behind the border’ regulation in the 21st century

The collection of papers that will be presented in the special issue of the AJIA is the first output from the Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage Grant into the changing trade and business relationship between Australia and the European Union (EU).

The focus of the AJIA Special Issue

Industrial tariffs are no longer a major impediment to trade between developed countries such as Australia and the EU member countries. Domestic regulations impacting on: product standards, cross-border trade in services, investment, government procurement, competition policy and, increasingly, the environment, are now more important in affecting trade and investment flows between developed countries.

Beyond the Doha trade negotiations, dealing with these ‘behind the border’ regulatory impacts on trade and investment will constitute an important aspect of 21st century international trade policy. Increased international cooperation and deeper integration of domestic regulations impacting on trade, particularly between developed countries, will create key building blocks for the next phase of globalisation of the world economy beyond that already achieved through domestic economic reform and deregulation programs in the WTO.

The aim of this Special Issue of AJIA is to examine how domestic regulation in both Australia and the EU impacts on bilateral trade and investment flows as well as the EU-Australia relationship more broadly. The papers, collectively, consider how increased cooperation and deeper integration could minimise the external impact of domestic regulation and provide new impetus to the EU-Australia trade and business relationship. The papers also examine the opportunities for increased cooperation between Australia and the EU in issues relating to trade and the environment and opportunities for resolving or avoiding trade disputes at an early stage.

The papers explore the economic and political relationship between the EU and Australia and the topics covered in this Special Issue would be of great interest to the AJIA’s readers, in particular: (i) international relations scholars and practitioners with an interest in the EU’s relations with third countries, and, conversely, Australia’s relationship with regional blocs and (ii) scholars and practitioners with an interest in the broader international trading system and/or specific topics such as standardisation in professional and education services. The authors are all pre-eminent experts in their field with outstanding international reputations.


H.E. Ambassador David Daly, Head of Delegation of the European Union to Australia, speech to the Australian Services Roundtable: 23 March 2010

March 28th 20011

In a speech to the Australian Services Roundtable HE Mr David Daly addressed the aim of the European Commission to build stronger Single Market through a complete implementation of the Services Directive in all EU Member States. It was outlined that the EU is Australia’s largest services trade partner and the largest source of foreign investment. Cooperation on bilateral trade between the two regions can be further developed with a direct cooperation of policy makers in Europe and Australia.

A full copy of HE Mr Daly's speech can be found at

Visit of the European Commissioner for Trade, Karel De Gucht, to Australia: 16-17 March 2010

March 27th 2011

Commissioner Karel De Gucht during his visit last week met with Australian Minister for Trade Craig Emerson. The meeting addressed the joint strategy to a successful conclusion to the Doha Round this year. Karel De Gucht addressed the benefits of bilateral business relations between Australia and the EU. It was noted that Australia and the EU have very positive trade and investment relationship with a strong potential for further advancement. A full transcript of the speech by European Commissioner Karel De Gucht can be found at:


2011 AIIA publication "Australia in World Affairs 2006-2010"

March 26th 2011

"Australia in World Affairs 2006-2010" the next volume in the authoritative series published every five years by the Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA) is to be published during 2011. For this forthcoming edition, the chapter on Australia’s relations with Europe has been written by Associate Professor Donald Kenyon, AM at the ANU Centre For European Studies and Dr David Lee, director of Historical Publications, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

The chapter covers all aspects of Australia’s relations with the European Union over the past five year period up to the end of 2010. It explores Australia’s renewed interest in and engagement with Europe over this period including the conclusion of a new Framework Partnership with the EU in 2008 and the decision taken towards the end of 2010 to conclude a treaty level framework Agreement with the union.


Current trade and investment profile between Australia and the EU

March 26th 2011

EU is in the front rank of Australia’s trade and investment partners. In terms of two-way goods and services trade, the EU, in 2009-10, with a 15.2% share of the total wassecond only to China (16.8%) as a trading partner for Australia. The EU constitutes Australia’s largest source of imports with just under 20% of the total ahead of both China (14.5%) and the US ( 12.6%) and in 2010 ranked third (10.4%) behind China (19.2%) and Japan (16.2%) as a destination for Australia’s exports of goods and services. In 2010, The EU was also Australia’s largest source of foreign direct investment (FDI), accounting for around 33% of the total and constitutes Australia’s second largest destination for FDI, following the US, with around 31% of the total.


Australia-EU Trade Project: scholarship recipient announced

Octiber 27th 2010

Genrikh Salata is the recipient of the PhD Scholarship in International Business, funded under the ARC Linkage Project "Australia and the European Union: a study of a changing trade and business relationship". His research topic will focus on "Business relations between Australia and Europe: A Firm-Level Assessment".

Biographical statement

Genrikh was awarded a Master of Commerce degree in 2009 from the Australian National University having earlier completed his B.A. (International Relations) with a Chinese language major. As part of his Master of Commerce, Genrikh conducted a research project on “Barriers to Bilateral Business Relations: The Case of Australia and Ukraine”. He gained multidisciplinary experience and conducted a wide range of studies. At university he investigated “The Impact of Intellectual Property Regulations on the Foreign Capital Inflow” and also participated in the study titled “The Pricing of National and City-Specific Reputations for Industry Expertise in the US Audit Market”. Research interests Specifics of business environments, foreign investment, international trade, cross-cultural and bilateral communication.


Statement by President Barroso following his meeting with Prime Minister Gillard

October 13th 2010

Following his meeting with Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard in Brussels on 4 October, José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, welcomed Prime Minister Gillard's proposal to develop further EU-Australia relations and Australia's entry into ASEM.

President Barroso's statement can be downloaded at


EU as an international partner for Australia - speech by Head of Delegation of the European Union to Australia

September 14th 2010

In a speech to the Capital Jewish Forum held at the ANU Centre for European Studies, HE Mr David Daly, Head of the Delegatoin of the European Union to Australia, described the EU as Australia's no. 1 economic partner.

A full copy of HE Mr Daly's speech can be found at


Chief investigator visits the Cologne Center for Media

May 14 2010

Anne McNaughton, one of the project's Chief Investigators visited the Cologne Center for Media during a recent trip to Germany. One of the reasons for Ms McNaughton's stay in Germany was the Second Australian European Lawyers Conference whichis organized by the European Focus Group of the Law Council of Australia and which was held from 1 to 3 October 2009 in Berlin.

Wissenschaftlerin der Australian National University zu Gast in der Forschungsstelle

Anne McNaughton, Lecturer an der Australian National University, Canberra, ist als Gastwissenschaftlerin zu Besuch an der Kölner Forschungsstelle für Medienrecht. Sie arbeitet an einem Forschungsprojekt im Rahmen des Australian Research Council Linkage Project zum Thema "Australia - the European Union: A changing trade and business relationship". Anlass ihres Deutschlandaufenthalts ist die 2nd Australian European Lawyers Conference, welche von der European Focus Group des Law Council of Australia veranstaltet wird und vom 1. bis 3. Oktober 2009 in Berlin stattfindet.


Call for applications for Visiting Fellowship Program, May 2010 - April 2011

May 12 2010

The ANU Centre for European Studies is pleased to announce a Call for Applications under this year’s Visiting Fellowship program. The closing date for applications is 1 May 2010, for visits to take place from May 2010 – April 2011.


Call for Papers - Criminal Justice Cooperation: Comparing European, United States’, Asia-Pacific and Australian approaches

May 12 2010

Preliminary Notice and Call for Papers

International Conference Criminal Justice Cooperation: Comparing European, United States’, Asia-Pacific and Australian approaches (Word Doc)

Hosted by the Law Faculty of the University of Canberra (UC) in association with the ARC Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security (CEPS) The conference is further supported by the Law Council of Australia and the ANU Centre of European Studies.


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