News & events
President of the Bundesrat and Berlin Mayor Michael Müller visits ANU, 15 November 2018
The Australian National University hosted a delegation led by President of the Bundesrat (Federal Council), Governing Mayor of Berlin and Senator for Higher Education, Michael Müller. This visit of 37 German delegates was part of PPCEUMI's activities and included politicians from the Federal Council, the Berlin House of Representatives and the Senate of the Federal State of Berlin, as well as representatives from academia, industry, think tanks and the media. The discussion focused on some of the research findings of the PPCEUMI project including the impact of Australia's skilled migration policy, and specifically the 457 Visa on labour supply, as well as a best practice case study of regional resettlement. Read more
PPCEUMI Policy Brief 1: Pathways to Integration in Australia, published as ANUCES Policy Note Issue 2, 2018, by Associate Professor Laurence Brown and ANU student Tanya Sim, October 2018.
Early Career Researchers Workshop, Auckland, New Zealand, 24-25 September 2018
This specialist workshop for masters students, PhD students and post-doctoral scholars took place at the Auckland University of Technology (AUT). It explored the theme 'EU Migrant Integration and Community Building: Qualitative Analysis and Philosophical Perspectives'. The two-day event featured research training and professional development sessions, exposing young researchers to qualitative methods for critical engagement with EU and third country migration and integration concerns. Drawing on the work developed by the PPCEUMI's Research Clusters, the workshop aimed to sharpen the skills and knowledge base of young scholars, while challenging popular perceptions about migration issues. Sessions were delivered by PPCEUMI network members Professor Martin Holland, Dr Rita Parker, Dr Kasia Williams, Dr Kate McMillan and Nicholas Simoes da Silva, and AUT Research Fellow Dr Merja Myllylahti.
Policy Dialogue - Border Control in the Neighbourhood: EU, Australia and the US, 24 August 2018
This invitation-only policy dialogue featured speakers from ANU, UNSW, RMIT University and the Settlement Council of Australia. It brought together academics, diplomats and policymakers to discuss border control issues, including two sessions on how states engage with their regional partners to 'extend' the border to manage regular and irregular migration. Speakers provided context on existing border control policies and how states use diplomatic and financial tools to encourage and discourage different forms of migration. For a full list of participants download the event handout at the bottom of this page.
Human Journeys in the Global Era, 17 August 2018
An invitation-only roundtable discussion co-funded by the ANU Centre for European Studies, Edith Cowan University (ECU), the C-Global Edith Cowan Centre for Global Issues, the Australian National Commission for UNESCO, the Australian National Maritime Museum and DAAD
Integration, disintegration and citizenship in a troubled European Union, 14 August 2018
A public lecture co-presented by the ANU Centre for European Studies and the Centre for Commercial Law at the ANU College of Law
The integration of immigrants into multicultural societies: Lessons from the United States and around the world, 1 August 2018
A public lecture presented by the School of Demography in the ANU College of Arts and Social Sciences
ANU Centre for European Studies newsletter, July 2018 - Find out more about recent activities of the Centre for European Studies in our newsletter, and follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Soundcloud
Community-led refugee sponsorship: What can Australia learn from the UK experience?, 26 July 2018
A public lecture presented by the ANU Public Policy and Societal Impact Hub
Migration network members meet to discuss Policy Dialogue in Singapore, 19 July 2018
Five universities launch migration research network, 24 May 2018
About the PPCEUMI Network
Policy, Politics, Culture: EU Migration and Integration (PPCEUMI) is focused on the study of third-country migrant integration in the EU through the lenses of politics, policy, governance, and culture. Policy- and solution-oriented, PPCEUMI focuses on the immediate period of pre-and point of arrival of migrants, as well as considering the longer-term process of integration. PPCEUMI provides a comprehensive avenue to improve EU and its member states’ implementation of best practice. The network will explore the politics of migration and integration, including the role of NGOs, the drivers of migration and integration, and the larger context of international mobility. PPCEUMI will also analyse and propose policy and governance reforms, based on explorations of existing EU approaches and the experiences of third countries in integrating migrants. Lastly, the project will examine the role of culture, citizenship and civic engagement, evaluating the models of assimilation and multiculturalism in the EU and third countries and the role of education.
PPCEUMI combines leading scholars with younger researchers and draws on multidisciplinary expertise in EU migration, law, policy, IR, media and cultural studies to:
- Examine EU and member states migration and integration policies;
- Compare EU with third country migrant and integration policies;
- Develop and share new knowledge about international best practice;
- Educate a new cohort of scholars;
- Make policy recommendations.
The project welcomes interested academic members wishing to participate in network activities or publications. For enquiries, email the ANU Centre for European Studies: firstname.lastname@example.org
PPCEUMI Network activities include:
- One Early Career Researcher Workshop in New Zealand
- Two Summer Schools in Berlin
- Three Network Meetings
- Two Policy Dialogues Canberra and Singapore
- One Concluding Conference in Canberra
PPCEUMI’s Three Research Clusters
Research Cluster 1: The Politics of Border Crossing - From Walls to Pathways: the EU and Third Countries
This project starts with an analysis of the construction of the contemporary European border narratives, examines the resources expended in supporting and sustaining the border 'industry', and explores strategies for moving public, political and policy debates to focal points beyond the territorial, juristic and metaphorical border. This involves challenging the normative and causative orthodoxies, and incorporating into policymaking broader geopolitical factors and pragmatic solutions. The project will explore the extent to which a greater appreciation of demographic, historical, legal and ethical narratives around the journey of the irregular migrant from country of origin to European borders (internal and external) provides an avenue for the development of approaches to irregular migration that are more compatible with European values and international obligations.
This project's comparative, interdisciplinary approach will be tackled through three 'stages' of inquiry, each based on the key 'Beyond Borders' themes of Globalism, Cooperation, Institutions, Identities, and Pathways. The first stage will identify the ways in which European borders are currently constructed and regulated acts to narrow the policy options available to political decision-makers, skewing the public dialogue around irregular migration. The second stage will focus on dynamic, global, people-oriented approaches of envisaging borders in the expectation of generating innovative policy approaches. This will include drawing on ethnographic studies that track the journey of migrants, their motivations, world-views and decision-making processes, as well as analyses of European institutions and decision-makers. Finally, the third stage will bring together the findings of the research to date, providing an opportunity to present empirical and normative studies of recent policy developments such as migration partnerships and 'legal' pathways, as well as exploring new policy tools and strategies for their elaboration and promotion.
The Research Team
Leadership: A/Profs Laurence Brown, Dr Rita Parker and Matthew Zagor
Members: A/Prof Abdulkader Sinno, Assistant Prof Chou Meng-Hsuan and Dr Matthew Doidge
Research Cluster 2: Policy and Governance: the EU and Third Countries
PPCEUMI’s Policy and Governance cluster seeks to outline, analyse and compare the efficacy of EU and third-country migration and integration polices and governance systems. The focus of this cluster will be on pre-departure and pre-arrival measures for third-country migrants, and labour market integration and access to vocational training program for such migrants. As the EU and its member states seek to develop new policies in these areas, and to improve integration outcomes, the cluster seeks to offer a cross-disciplinary and mixed methodology hub that can offer analysis of existing policies and compare their success with those in third countries already dealing with large migrant populations. The cluster offers an avenue through which to introduce into the EU effective and tried policies and approaches, thus improving knowledge and experience diffusion outside the networks already established within the EU, which the cluster will also seek to tap into to maximise knowledge diffusion.
The Research Team
Leadership: Ms Anne McNaughton and Dr Lay Hwee Yeo
Members: Prof Martin Holland and Prof Bruce Wilson
Research Cluster 3: Culture, Citizenship and Civic Engagement: the EU and Third Countries
The Culture, Citizenship and Civic Engagement research cluster seeks to bring together two trajectories of community-building to consider their efficacy and possibilities for harmonisation and/or realignment: top down instrumentalist social, cultural and security policies, for example urban planning, education and migrant resettlement programmes; and bottom-up through neighbourhood centres, art and cultural programmes, local government community engagement and NGO activities. While the primary focus will be on the specific challenges facing European Union member states, there will also be opportunities for comparative European and Australian/USA/Singaporean/NZ case studies. The project will also consider counter-culture and protest movements, including community responses at local, national and international levels to terror attacks, such as the expressions of solidarity linked to the Charlie Hebdo attacks seen as far away as Australia and NZ.
Multiculturalism will be a key concept investigates. Across Europe and many third countries, there has been, in some quarters, disquiet about cultural diversity and the perceived threat to national security, given current concerns about violent extremism. This has led to some claims of the failure of multiculturalism. This cluster investigates such perceptions in the media and popular cultural expression. In particular, there will be an exploration of what multiculturalism means in the EU and its permutations in member states, and how this differs from the use of the term in Australia, for example.
This cluster seeks to ask whether the concept of multiculturalism contributes to expanding the capacity of national and European identity narratives to encompass multiple forms of belonging for migrants. Does multiculturalism have a role to play in enabling the demographic diversity of the European community to be represented and reflected in cultural, institutional and governmental structures? Do the experiences of other countries such as Australia and Singapore illuminate the role that discursive narratives of multiculturalism play in articulating and increasing acceptance of, and engagement with, multicultural realities?
The Research Team
Leadership: A/Profs Brett Bowles and Reuben Wong
Members: Dr Serena Kelly, A/Prof Annick Masselot, Prof Jacqueline Lo, A/Prof Susanna Scarparo, Dr Katarzyna Williams and Dr Kate McMillan
Prof Jacqueline LO, The Australian National University – ANU Centre for European Studies
Executive Director of the ANU Centre for European Studies, winning two large grants from the European Commission to co-fund the Centre and its international programs in Asia/Europe/North America since 2011. Highly experienced academic leader. Holds appointment as Chair of ANU Academic Board, the apex of academic governance. Jacqueline’s research focuses on issues of nationalism, transnationalism, migration, diaspora and the interaction of cultures and communities across ethnic, national and regional borders. She has considerable experience in education and cultural policy, cultural diplomacy and research management, and has advised the Australian government on arts, education and multicultural policies for many years. The Founding Chair of the Asian Australian Studies Research Network, Jacqueline was awarded the Chevalier Ordre des Palmes Académiques in 2014 for building European-French cultural relations. She also holds a number of adjunct and visiting positions in Europe and the USA.
A/Prof Matthew ZAGOR, The Australian National University – ANU College of Law
Matthew’s research is characterised by its transdisciplinary approach and diversity, with recent publications covering comparative Australian-EU constitutional law, the ways in which political tropes of authenticity, autonomy and exploitation translate into legal norms governing refugee movement, and the ‘humanity’ turn of international law. His research applies theories of political theology to the legal construction of the border, and the Australian judiciary's approach to human rights treaty obligations. Matthew is Editor of the Australian Yearbook of International Law, and has held visiting fellowships at the London School of Economics Centre for Human Rights and Society, and the University of Grenoble’s Centre for International Security and European Cooperation. In March 2017 Matthew commenced a visiting fellowship at Georgetown University to examine the sacralisation of the border and narratives of generosity in refugee policies in Australia, the USA and the EU.
A/Prof Laurence BROWN, The Australian National University – ANU College of Arts & Social Sciences
Historian of migration working on the dynamics of emigration (in the Caribbean and Pacific) and processes of arrival and integration in Europe (specifically France and the UK). As editor of the ESRC Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity Briefings series, Laurence worked at the intersection of academic research, policy engagement and collaboration with a range of NGO bodies. His publications examine changing approaches to ethnic statistics in the UK, French reactions to Spanish refugees in the 1930s and different integration policies and socio-economic structures experienced by migrants in contemporary France and Britain. He has also published studies on how different migration systems interacted in the 19th century Caribbean. His current research examines how policies of migration impact on immigrant integration outcomes, which is the focus of a forthcoming book comparing Europe’s migration crisis with Australia and New Zealand’s experiences of immigration.
Ms Anne McNAUGHTON, The Australian National University – ANU Centre for European Studies and ANU College of Law
Anne’s research focuses on the European Union as a unique legal order in international law. She has been studying this phenomenon since completing her Master of Laws in Tübingen, Germany in 1991. Her thesis was on the incorporation of the territory of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) into the European Communities, following the reunification of Germany in 1990. Anne’s research is directed to developing a more sophisticated and evidence-based understanding of the European Union in the broader Australian community and the wider Asia-Pacific region beyond the Common Agricultural Policy. She was an investigator on an interdisciplinary ARC Linkage Grant, ‘Australia and the European Union: A Study of a Changing Trade and Business Relationship’.
Dr Susanna SCARPARO, The Australian National University - ANU College of Arts & Social Sciences
Susanna is Associate Dean (Student Experience) and Professor of Italian Studies. She studied literary studies as an undergraduate in Italy and holds a PhD in Italian and Comparative Literature from the University of Auckland. Her research program follows four main trajectories within the broad interdisciplinary fields of Cultural Studies and Italian Studies: Italian cinema, women filmmakers, contemporary women writers (with special attention to autobiography and biography), fliterray theory, feminist theory (with special attention to sexual difference theory), global studies, migration and diaspora studies (focusing on narratives and life writing).
Dr Katarzyna WILLIAMS, The Australian National University – ANU Centre for European Studies
Biography coming soon
Dr Rita PARKER, The Australian National University – ANU Centre for European Studies
Rita is a Europa Visiting Fellow at the ANU Centre for European Studies, and an Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Canberra. She formerly managed the Australian Centre for Armed Conflict and Society, University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy and was a Distinguished Fellow (Associate Professor) at George Mason University, Virginia, USA. Rita takes a multidisciplinary approach to her research which is focused on urgent global transnational security policy areas with a strong emphasis on actionable policy outcomes, within two thematic areas: non‑traditional transnational security challenges to national resilience and, the future resilience of the rules based democratic model. Prior to her academic roles, Dr Parker held senior policy advisor roles in Australian Federal Government departments (including of the Prime Minster and Cabinet, Attorney‑General’s and Defence,) and to State governments, where she established her expertise in international transnational security and resilience issues. Among her publications Rita is co‑editor of Global Insecurity: Futures of Chaos and Governance (2017).
Prof Annick MASSELOT, The University of Canterbury – College of Business & Law
Annick is professor of Law and has been teaching and researching the European Union for over 20 years. She has published on EU law and gender equality, social and employment law, reconciliation between work and family life, and pregnancy and maternity rights. Annick’s expertise on the achievement of gender equality represents a primary reference point and has both shaped the field conceptually as well as impacted directly on policymaking, especially in the fields of reconciliation between work and family life, and pregnancy and maternity rights in the context of employment law and social policy. Her PhD thesis was on ‘The Emerging Childcare Strategy in European Union Law: The Struggle between Care, Gender Equality and the Market’. She was the co-coordinator of the Commission’s Legal Experts Network on gender equality with Prof Sacha Prechal. Annick is the author of Reconciling Work and Family Life in EU Law and Policy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010) with E. Caracciolo di Torella. She has co-edited Importing EU Norms? Conceptual Framework and Empirical Findings (Springer 2015). She is co-editor of the Journal of Common Market Studies.
Prof Martin HOLLAND, The University of Canterbury – National Centre for Research on Europe
Martin holds New Zealand’s only Jean Monnet Chair ad personam, and is Director of the National Centre for Research on Europe at the University of Canterbury and of the EU Centres Network New Zealand. He has taught at Canterbury since 1984 and in 2000 established the National Centre for Research on Europe, New Zealand’s only EU tertiary level centre. Martin leads the ‘EU External Perceptions Project’ which was recognised by DG EAC as one of the top 20 ‘Jean Monnet Success Stories’. He has supervised projects on perceptions of the EU in Asia, Africa and the Pacific and has held a Jean Monnet Chair ad personam since 2008. He has authored over one hundred articles and chapters and 21 books, the most recent being Development Policy of the EU (with M. Doidge, Palgrave, 2012) and Communicating Europe in the Times of Crisis: External Perceptions of the European Union (with N. Chaban, Palgrave-McMillan, 2014).
Dr Mathew DOIDGE, The University of Canterbury – National Centre for Research on Europe
Mathew specialises in the study of the European Union (with a focus on its external relations) and international development. He is a Fellow of the National Centre for Research on Europe, with experience teaching a range of modules on the European Union, and on the politics of international development. He has taught at universities in New Zealand, Germany and the UK, and has authored a number of articles and books addressing the external relations of the EU, including its development policy. His research interests include: EU external relations (with foci on development policy and EU–Asia relations), regionalism, interregionalism, and development. Mathew has recently been funded with an Erasmus+ Jean Monnet ‘European Union Development Policy in International Context’ module (and its postgraduate extension ‘The European Union and the International Political Economy of Development’).
Dr Serena KELLY, The University of Canterbury – National Centre for Research on Europe
Serena is an early career academic who teaches and researches on the EU. Serena has lectured in 9 courses on the EU since 2008, in collaboration with a number of esteemed academics at the University of Canterbury. She is the author and co-author of a number of academic articles, mentors postgraduate students, and regularly travels to Europe and Asia to conduct research and present at conferences. Serena’ PhD was the first to assess the potential impact of the European External Action Service and was well received. Since then, Serena has been involved in a number of projects, most notably, ‘Perceptions of the EU in 10 ASEM Countries’. In this project she was coordinator, trainer and mentor for approximately 12 postdoctoral and postgraduate researchers as well as their local supervisors. Her research interests include: European diplomacy, international political communication and Europe’s relations, presence, impact in and with the Asia Pacific, especially Australia and New Zealand.
Prof Bruce WILSON, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology – EU Centre at RMIT
Director of the European Union Centre at RMIT, and a member of the Executive Board, Contemporary European Studies Association of Australia (CESAA). In this role, Bruce provides insights to and leads research and debate on EU-Australian relations, encouraging mobility for staff and students, and building partnerships between Australian universities and organisations and their European counterparts. He also leads a major project on comparative regional policy in Europe, Australia and Asia, looking at interventions to promote innovative economic development that improves the living and working conditions of people in metropolitan and rural city-regions. He has substantial experience working with all levels of government on organisational and social change, and is committed to linking researchers and policymakers with city and regional governments in policy formation related to social and economic policy, innovation, lifelong learning and environment. He was a founding Co-Director of Pascal International Observatory.
A/Prof Abdulkader SINNO, Indiana University, Bloomington – Institute for European Studies
Abdulkader is Associate Professor of Political Science and Near Eastern Languages and Cultures. He specialises in Muslim minority political representation in Western democracies (especially Europe and the United States), public policies related to Muslim simmigration, public opinion toward Muslims, and organisational/institutional processes for resolving conflicts of various types (social, military, political). He has taught undergraduate and postgraduate courses on Muslims in Western Politics, Muslim Immigration, and Comparative Politics of the Middle East. Recent research-related appointments include fellowships at the Woodrow Wilson International Center (2014–15) and the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding (2011–16), as well as membership in the British Council’s Our Shared Future Opinion Leaders Network (2011–present). These appointments connect with his current research priority of analysing policy responses in the US and Europe toward Muslim immigration.
A/Prof Brett BOWLES, Indiana University, Bloomington – Institute for European Studies
Brett is Associate Professor of French Studies and Director of the Institute for European Studies. He specialises in the political and social dimensions of mass-media representation, with a focus on film (documentary and fiction) and television in France and elsewhere in Europe. His research and teaching examine how hierarchies of power determined by race, ethnicity, and nationality are embedded in the processes of film production, distribution/marketing, and exhibition spanning the colonial and postcolonial periods of the 20th and 21st centuries. His current research is a comparative project focusing on the contested representation of Middle Eastern and African immigration to Europe in various genres of documentary (professional, feature-length productions shown on television or in theatres; amateur films posted on the web; television news reports) and across various EU countries (France, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom).
A/Prof Reuben WONG, National University of Singapore – EU Centre
Reuben held the first Jean Monnet Chair in Singapore (2013–16). He is Director of Studies at the College of Alice & Peter Tan (CAPT) at the National University of Singapore. He earned an MPhil in European Politics at Oxford, and a PhD in International Relations at the London School of Economics. Reuben is the author of The Europeanization of French Foreign Policy (2006); and National and European Foreign Policies (co-edited with Christopher Hill, 2011). He currently researches the construction of Chinese and Singaporean foreign policy identities, regionalism, and EU relations with ASEAN and China. A former diplomat (Paris, 1995–98) and a Fulbright scholar (2009), he serves on the Council of the Singapore Institute of International Affairs think tank, the EU Centre in Singapore, and is Senior Research Associate at the College of Europe in Bruges.
Dr YEO Lay Hwee, National University of Singapore – EU Centre
Lay Hwee has been Director of the EU Centre (EUC) in Singapore since 2009. The EUC is jointly hosted by the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University and co-funded by the EU under the Industrialised Country Instrument. Lay Hwee has been instrumental in conceptualising and operationalising many of the outreach programs and publications to help raise the understanding of the EU. The EUC organises year-round public lectures and talks, research seminars and panel discussions on issues associated with the EU and its relations with Singapore and Southeast Asia (ASEAN). Lay Hwee also teaches two EU-related modules: one module on ‘The EU and ASEAN in the World’ at the NUS, and another module on ‘The EU and Contemporary European Security’ at NTU’s Graduate School, Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS). She participates actively in both academic conferences and policy dialogue on ASEM and EU-ASEAN relations.
Dr Meng-Hsuan CHOU, Nanyang Technological University (NTU)
Meng-Hsuan is Nanyang Assistant Professor in Public Policy and Global Affairs. She has a PhD in international studies (Cambridge), MPhil in European politics and society (Oxford), MA in European public administration (Leiden), and a BA in political science (University of California, Berkeley). Specialising in public policy (talent migration, research and higher education policies), regionalism (EU, Asia) and international relations, Meng-Hsuan was the PI and co-PI for the following projects: Singapore in the Global Talent Race (2015–17, National Research Foundation); ‘Doing Higher Education Regionalism’ (2015–16, Merlion Grant); ‘Regionalism and the Global Higher Education Market’ (2014–17, Ministry of Education); ‘Competing for Talent in a Globalised World (2013–18, NTU). She is also the Convenor of the ECPR Standing Group on the Politics of Higher Education, Research, and Innovation, which consists of more than 160 social scientists and legal scholars researching knowledge governance from around the world.
Dr Fiona Barker, Victoria University Wellington (VUW)
Fiona is Senior Lecturer in Comparative Politics at Victoria University of Wellington. She holds a PhD from Harvard University (2007), was Jean Monnet Fellow at the European University Institute, and has been visiting researcher at the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin, CERI-Sciences Po Paris, University of Edinburgh, and the ANU. She researches and teaches the politics of immigration and integration, identity politics, nationalism and electoral politics, including an advanced undergraduate course on Migration and Identity. Her 2015 book, Nationalism, Identity and the Governance of Diversity (Palgrave Macmillan), examined the governance of migration in multi-level, multi-national societies in Europe and Canada. She has also published on New Zealand’s extension of voting rights to non-citizens (NZJPIL 12: 1, 2014), diversification of New Zealand’s parliament under MMP (Parliamentary Affairs 2017), and electoral participation of Asian immigrants in New Zealand (Political Science, 2017). She is currently conducting joint research (with Dr Kate McMillan, Victoria University of Wellington) on the role of the ethnic media in democratic politics in New Zealand and on migration and security issues in integrating regions (with support from a Jean Monnet Network grant). She is on the board of the European Union Centres Network of New Zealand.
Dr Kate McMillan, Victoria University Wellington (VUW)
Kate is a Senior Lecturer in Politics, Deputy Head of the School of History, Philosophy, Political Science and International Relations, and Director of the Masters in Migration Studies at Victoria University of Wellington. She is also President of the New Zealand Political Studies Association. Her broad areas of research are immigration and citizenship politics, particularly those within regions undergoing economic integration, and media politics in New Zealand. She is currently working on three specific projects: one (with Dr Fiona Barker, Victoria University of Wellington) looks at the reporting of the 2017 New Zealand general election in New Zealand’s immigrant media, and another (with Dr Sriprapha Petcharamesee, Mahidol University, Bangkok) looks at the concept of ‘responsibility-sharing’ for refugees in the ASEAN region. A third compares the social welfare entitlements of intra-regional migrants in Australasia with those in other integrating regions. Kate teaches an introductory course on comparative politics (with Fiona Barker), a multi-disciplinary Masters-level course on global migration, and in 2019 will teach a new course on the politics of forced migration. A list of Kate’s recent publications may be found here: https://www.victoria.ac.nz/hppi/about/staff/kate-mcmillan
ANU Research Associate
Nicholas SIMOES DA SILVA
Nicholas is a research assistant at the ANU Centre for European Studies. His background is in law and international relations at the ANU. He also studied European Union Law for six months at Sciences Po, Paris. His primary interest is in the processes of integration and law reform in the European Union. He also researches regulatory compliance practices and how the law addresses labour violations and corporate accountability for wrongdoing.