The Robert Schuman Lecture series celebrates the remarkable achievements of European integration since its modest beginnings in the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951, announced in a declaration by French Foreign Minister Schuman. The Australian National University has recognised this achievement and foresight by coordinating the annual Schuman Lecture since 1996. The first lecture was delivered by Lord Leon Brittan, the then Vice President of the European Commission. Since then, the University has coordinated annual Schuman Lectures by distinguished speakers, including The Right Honourable Chris Patten CH, Commissioner for External Relations, The Right Honourable Alexander Downer and Justice Michael Kirby of the Australian High Court. This paper is the latest contribution to the ANU Centre for European Studies Schuman Lecture Series, and was delivered by David Ritchie AO at The Australian National University on 28 August 2017.